The Solea Valley Irrigation System

3000 BC 3000BC: The coastal area of Cyprus is settled and copper extraction begins.
.2500 BC





.2000 BC  
.1500 bc 1200BC: The town of Soli is built by settlers from Greece and gradually the valley is settled so that by 500BC the upper part of the valley (Kakopetria village area) is occupied.
.1000 bc  
.500 bc  
.500 ad

7th to 10th c. AD: The town of Soli is abandoned due to Arab raids, people move away from the coast in upstream areas of the valley.


.1000 ad

10th to 16th c. AD: Byzantine, Frankish and Venetian periods. A lot of projects take place in the Solea Valley including the construction of watermills, churches monasteries, extensive terracing of land and diversions of the river


.1500 ad

1570 to 1878: Ottoman period. The institution of water rights is established in their present form.

1878 to 1960: British colonial period. Railway connection is constructed in 1915 and it is ceased in 1951. During this period the copper mining is intensified.

1960: Independence of Cyprus. Concreting of the earth channels that were used for diversion takes place in the 1960s.

1974: Turkish Invasion. The Fokasa copper mine is abandoned. Gradually the population declines.

1987: Karyotis Project Feasibility Study takes place (Soyuzgiprovodhoz Institute)

.2000 ad

2003: Feasibility study for a new project, by the Water Development Department. 


2010: Construction of the Solea valley Project begins.