Hydraulic Works in the Ancient Agora of Athens

2000 bc  
.1500 bc  
.1000 bc Before the 6th c. BC: The neck and shoulders of a broken pithos (large jar used for storage) were used as wellheads of the wells of the ancient Agora
.500 bc

6th c. BC: The wells of the ancient Agora begin to appear lined with masonry of small stones. Drums were specially designed to be used as wellheads, made of terracotta on the beginning and later of stone.

Second half of the 6th c. BC: The southeast fountain house (Enneakrounos) is constructed. 

Late 6th c. BC: An aqueduct consisting of a pipeline possibly bringing water to the Enneakrounos is constructed. 

Early 5th c. BC: The Great Drain is constructed.

Late 5th – beginning of 4th century BC: The Great Drain is extended to the east and to the west. 


4th c. BC onwards: The wells begin to appear formed with circular terracotta drums in order to create a resistant shaft.

4th c. BC: Extensive water works are carried out in the Agora, during the period when Athens is suffering from extensive droughts. Among these, the southwest fountain house, a limestone aqueduct underneath the east-west road of the Agora and the water clock are constructed. 

.500 ad Hellenistic and Roman times: More sophisticated systems for drawing water were invented with a stone frame above the well supporting a pulley.
.1000 ad  
.1500 ad  
.2000 ad