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Water management on Ventotene and Santo Stefano islands

2000 bc 16th – 18th c. BC: Human settlements are testified by remains from the age of bronze.
.1500 bc  
.1000 bc  
.500 bc

338 BC: The Pontine isles became Roman.

1st c. BC: Romans began building rich residences in the Pontine isles as the Tyrrenian sea was no longer plunged by pirates.

29 BC: Ventotene became part of the Imperial patrimony, and the following years the building of the imperial residence began to be constructed.

2 BC: Augustus’ daughter Julia is exiled to Ventotene. The villa, with her name, the port, the fish pond and the aqueduct had already been built, although not completed.

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1st c. AD: Ventotene provides a residence for exiled ladies of Imperial Rank.

1st–3rd c. AD: Ventotene remains the patrimony of the Roman emperors.

Late 3rd c. AD: The luxurious Roman residences start to decline and Ventotene, more than the other Pontine isles, remains for centuries at the mercy of Saracen and Turkish raids.

.500 ad

4th – 18th c. AD: Ventotene remains the patrimony of the Roman emperors.

.1000 ad  
.1500 ad

2nd half of 18th c. AD: Ventotene is colonised by the Bourbon kings of Naples, after Carlo III of Bourbon inherits the isle of Ventotene, from his mother Elisabeth Farnese, wife of Philippe V, king of Spain.

Late 18th c. AD: The most important Bourbon monuments of Ventotene, the ancient marine village, the church of Saint Candida, the Fortress Tower are built, as well as the imposing jail of Santo Stefano.

1795: The jail standing on the rock with a horse shoe shape and 99 cells in a radial arrangement on three floors is finished with numerous service buildings around it.

19th c. AD: The urbanization and population work of the Pontine isles, start with Charles III and are completed by Ferdinand IV, with the inhabited centre of Ventotene apart from the penitentiary of S. Stefano.

1928: Hundreds of political opponents to fascism are confined to Ventotene. The most famous was Altiero Spinelli who drew up “The manifesto of Ventotene” on the island, the constitutive document of the European Union.

1935: Pertini, future president of the Italian Republic in the ‘80s, is imprisoned in the Santo Stefano jail.
 

1965: Santo Stefano jail is shut down; the tankers start to supply water to Ventotene; The summer tourism assault begins on Ventotene island as elsewhere on the islands and on the coast.
.2000 ad