Water management at Ventotene Island, Italy

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  • 16th – 18thcentury BC — Human settlements are testified by remains of the age of bronze.
  • 338 BC — The Pontine isles became Roman.
  • 1st century BC — Romans began building rich residences in the Pontine isles as the Tyrrenian sea was no longer plunged by pirates.
  • 29 BC — Ventotene became part of the Imperial patrimony, and the following years the building of the imperial residence begun to be constructed.
  • 2 BC — Augusto’s daughter Julia is exiled to Ventotene. The villa, with her name, the port the fish pond and the aqueduct had been already built although not completed.
  • 1st century AD — Ventotene provides residence for exiled ladies of Imperial Rank.
  • 1st–3rd century AD — Ventotene remains patrimony of the Roman emperors.
  • Late 3rd century AD — The luxurious Roman residences start to decline and Ventotene, more than the other Pontine isles, remains for centuries at the mercy of Saracen and Turkish raids.
  • 4th – 18th century AD — Ventotene remains patrimony of the Roman emperors.
  • 2nd half of 18th century AD — Ventotene is colonised of by the Bourbon kings of Naples, after Carlo III of Borbon inherits the isle of Ventotene, from his mother Elisabeth Farnese, wife of Philippe V, king of Spain.
  • Late 18th century AD — The most important Bourbon monuments of Ventotene, the ancient marine village, the church of Saint Candida, the Fortress Tower are built as well as the stately jail of Santo Stefano.
  • 1795 — The jail standing on the top of the rock with a horse shoe form and 99 cells in a radial arrangement on three floors is finished with numerous service buildings around it.
  • 19th Century AD — The urbanization and population work of the Pontine isles, start with Charles III and is completed by Ferdinand IV, with the inhabited centre of Ventotene besides the penitentiary of S. Stefano.
  • 1928 — Hundreds political opponents to fascism are confined to Ventotene. The most famous was Altiero Spinelli who drew up there “The manifesto of Ventotene” the constitutive document of European Union.
  • 1935 — Pertini, future president of Italia Republic in the ‘80s, is imprisoned in Santo Stefano jail.
  • 1965 — Santo Stefano jail is closed; the tankers start to supply water to Ventotene; The summer tourism assault begins on Ventotene island as elsewhere on islands and on the coast.