The Matfias, a traditional tool for rural water harvesting & storage in Morocco
Abda region as case study

44 AD: A number of reservoirs and wells are located in several roman
archaeological sites in Morocco, probably built to store rainwater
(Sites of Tamuda, Tanger, Banassa and volubilis & Tamoussida)
.500 ad  
.1000 ad



13th century: Some  historical references indicate that clay cisterns
were used to store rainwater in the city of Ceuta in Northern Morocco
.1500 ad
16th century: When The Portuguese occupied some Moroccan
Atlantic coastal cities, they built a big  water reservoir, similar to
the technique used for Matfia- in the city of El Jadida
1767: The residents of Essaouira (city on the Atlantic Coast) used
the system of Matfias to store rainwater during the reign of the King
sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah (from the Alawite Dynasty)
1820: Inscriptions on some Matfias in Abda Region indicate the
year of construction (1820) 
1926: After a period of severe draught many collective Matfias
were built in the region of Abda 
.2000 ad
21st Century: Matfas are still used as a traditional technique to
store rainwater with the addition of some modern tools to access
groundwater (e.g. diesel engines)